Mingora is 1030 metres above sea level. This was the apex of triangular Gandhara region with its base running from the Peshawar valley across the Indus to Taxila in the Punjab.

Following the successive invasions by barbarian hordes from the 5th century AD onward it fell into a "dark age" from which it was never to emerge.

Lower Swat begins from the district of Buner on the border of Mardan to the south and spreads north to Bahrain. The valley has an elevation of 1000 to 5000 metres and is generally scenic, lush green, stepped with terraces, rivers and snow-clad mountains.

Emerald occur in carbonate-talc/ serpentine/chlorite rocks, carbonate-bearing talc schists, and associated quartz veins near Mingora.

Mingora Emerald Mine visible on Google Earth.

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